Acne vulgaris - the most common skin lesions in adolescents, usually associated with puberty. Acne is caused by a disturbance of normal function of sebaceous glands and hair follicles. Eels are pustular, nodular, with black and white heads. Untreated, pustules with necrotic content can lead to the formation of scar skin blemishes. Acne develops at the age of 12-25 years in 85% of the population, while usually in boys from 16 to 18 years, and girls from 15 to 18 years. In men, acne often go to 20 years, women have their appearance can continue beyond 30 years and worsen during menopause. Acne can grow under the influence of cosmetics at any age. Also, at any age Acne can spontaneously disappear.
Keep in mind that acne - it's not just a physical defect. The disease affects a person during the formation of personality, attitudes and social relationships can lead to a number of psychological disorders to depression and even psychosis.
Causes of Acne
Place of formation of acne is the sebaceous glands of the skin. The sebaceous glands combined with the hair follicle and are connected to the skin surface channel through which the hair may come out. Sebaceous gland secretes a secret, which, passing through the channel appears on the skin surface and are distributed over the surface, provides the hydration of the skin and hair. The sebaceous glands are located most densely in the face, chest, back and neck, so that acne is more common.
At puberty, androgens increase the number of both men and women. The sebaceous glands in response to changes in hormonal levels increase their activity, and wall thickening flow causes mechanical obstruction to the normal outflow of sebum. Clogged duct, which leads to the formation of "mikrokomedona" - the initial stage of the eel.
Despite the fact that sex hormones influence the development of acne, their levels in patients may be normal. It is believed that the increased sensitivity of receptors to the hormones that triggers the disease process.
Dead cells of the epithelial lining sebaceous duct in normal sshelushivayutsya and brought to the surface of the skin in the glandular secretion. When the outflow of difficulty, these cells accumulate in the channel, taking part in the formation of mikrokomedona. With further accumulation of sebaceous secretion and duct cells expands, which leads to the formation of closed comedones (with a white head), because the content is below the skin surface.
If the continuing stagnation of secretion and is increased, the content begins to flow out of the holes and form an open comedo with black head. The color is not due to oxidation of the head of fat or grease, and the presence of melanin, secreted by the superficial layer of the skin.
In the presence of inflammation around the comedone formed inflammatory nodules. These eels protrude above the surface of the skin, with redness of the skin in this area. Progression of inflammation leads to the formation of pustules.
Predisposing factors of acne
Acne can occur in women before menstruation, during ovulation and pregnancy. This is due to changes in hormonal levels. Hormonal contraceptives containing androgens, as well as prolonged stress or other emotional disturbances may also exacerbate acne.
Acne occur in conditions of high humidity, frequent and prolonged sweating.
Local skin irritation, rubbing, tight-fitting clothes can cause the appearance of acne.
Acne can also occur when using cosmetic products that contain oils that contribute to the comedones (lanolin, mineral oil and cocoa butter). This results in blockage of the follicle, which is the cause of the gain or acne. Acne can potentiate the intake of certain drugs (acne medicamentosa). Drugs that cause acne are androgens, oral contraceptives, iodides, bromides, ethionamide, azotiaprin, dantrolene, haloperidol, halothane, isoniazid, lithium, phenytoin, drugs to treat diseases of the thyroid gland and trimetadoin corticosteroids. The important role played by heredity.
Treatment of acne (acne)Acne is rarely cured, but their expression can be controlled to varying degrees. If patients comply with prescribed treatment regimen significantly reduced symptoms and reduced the amount of scarring. Since acne is present for a long time, often begins with a young and lasts until mid-third decade, the treatment should be prolonged and consistent.
Any acne treatment should include:
- A clear implementation of the recommendations a doctor.
- Facilitation of physical and social discomfort.
- Remove the skin of excess sebum.
- Prevention of blockage of the ducts openings.
- Use of annoying to open channels.
- Addressing the conditions conducive to the emergence of acne (friction, cosmetics, based on oil).
Self-medication or consultation with a specialist?
Self is possible only with non-inflammatory acne formations with white and black heads and a small amount of precipitation (less than 10 on each side of the face). Treatment should be directed to the elimination of predisposing factors: the use of cosmetics, excessive sweating and skin exposure of chemical stimuli. In this case the patient should understand that treatment will be prolonged, a complete cure is not possible, you can only control the degree of severity of symptoms.
There are situations where self-treatment is unacceptable and should consult a dermatologist:
- In the presence of inflammatory acne, including pustules and nodules
- With considerable severity of acne (more than 10 on each side of the face).
If you anticipate the relationship of acne medication and comedogenic products (eg, androgens), you should consult with a gynecologist / endocrinologist.
Not medicinal resources
The fundamental point in the treatment of acne - the correct hygiene of the skin. The preferred method for removal of skin excess sebum - a well thought-out program of washing during the day, the purpose of which - a little dry skin (and possibly even cause a slight irritation). Affected areas should be washed thoroughly but carefully, at least twice a day with warm water, curative or ordinary soap, using a soft sponge. Wipe dry. More frequent washing can be applied to more oily skin. Washing should not be too vigorous, as it can worsen and cause the appearance of acne mechanical. When washing should be barely noticeable pilling (sshelushivanie) to reduce comedones. If necessary, the frequency and intensity of washing can be reduced, and soaps to pick up less dried.
Suitable for application and regular soap for the face that contains moisturizing oils. The effectiveness of soaps containing antibacterial ingredients in the treatment of acne has not been proved. Use for self-acne salicylic acid, sulfur and sulfur combination with resorcinol monoacetate or rezertsinola effectively and safely. But their inclusion in the soaps is impractical because after washing the skin, they are not.
To eliminate acne nevospalitelnyh recommended to use soft abrasive products (sponges, cleansers containing polyethylene or aluminum oxide). In inflammatory acne, they are contraindicated because they may increase irritation. If conditions do not allow to wash during the day, you can use special wipes, cotton balls soaked in special facilities.
Since the treatment of acne begins with the removal of excess fat from the skin, cosmetics and hair styling should be based on the water, not fat. Hair should be washed frequently, as acne is often accompanied by increased fat content of the skin.
Used earlier for treatment of acne sunlight and UV lamps are not currently recommended because they may worsen acne, skin aging and contribute to increased risk of cancer. Posted byO.A Blggerat10:10
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